Most snake-like robots use wheels, which are high in friction when moving side to side but low in friction when rolling forward and can be prevented from rolling backward. The majority of snake-like robots use either lateral undulation or rectilinear locomotion and have difficulty climbing vertically. Choset has recently developed a modular robot that can mimic several snake gaits, but it cannot perform concertina motion.
The focus of these robots is on the role of snake ventral scales on adjusting the frictional properties in different directions. These robots can actively control their scales to modify their frictional properties and move on a variety of surfaces efficiently. Climbing is an especially difficult task because mistakes made by the climber may cause the climber to lose its grip and fall.
Most robots have been built around a single functionality observed in their biological counterparts. Geckobots  typically use van der waals forces that work only on smooth surfaces. Stickybots,     and  use directional dry adhesives that works best on smooth surfaces. Spinybot  and the RiSE  robot are among the insect-like robots that use spines instead.
Legged climbing robots have several limitations. They cannot handle large obstacles since they are not flexible and they require a wide space for moving.
They usually cannot climb both smooth and rough surfaces or handle vertical to horizontal transitions as well. One of the tasks commonly performed by a variety of living organisms is jumping. Bharal , hares , kangaroo , grasshopper , flea , and locust are among the best jumping animals. The highest jumping miniature robot is inspired by the locust, weighs 23 grams with its highest jump to cm is "TAUB" Tel-Aviv University and Braude College of engineering. ETH Zurich has reported a soft jumping robot based on the combustion of methane and laughing gas.
The soft robot inspired by a roly-poly toy then reorientates itself into an upright position after landing. Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly, which emulate the locomotion of manta ray, and jellyfish, respectively.
Huosheng Hu at Essex University. The modular robots are typically capable of performing several tasks and are specifically useful for search and rescue or exploratory missions.
Some of the featured robots in this category include a salamander inspired robot developed at EPFL that can walk and swim,  a snake inspired robot developed at Carnegie-Mellon University that has four different modes of terrestrial locomotion,  and a cockroach inspired robot can run and climb on a variety of complex terrain.
Humanoid robots are robots that look human-like or are inspired by the human form. There are many different types of humanoid robots for applications such as personal assistance, reception, work at industries, or companionship. These type of robots are used for research purposes as well and were originally developed to build better orthosis and prosthesis for human beings.
Petman is one of the first and most advanced humanoid robots developed at Boston Dynamics. Some of the humanoid robots such as Honda Asimo are over actuated.
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The collective behavior of animals has been of interest to researchers for several years. Ants can make structures like rafts to survive on the rivers. Fish can sense their environment more effectively in large groups. Swarm robotics is a fairly new field and the goal is to make robots that can work together and transfer the data, make structures as a group, etc. Soft robots  are robots composed entirely of soft materials and moved through pneumatic pressure, similar to an octopus or starfish.
Such robots are flexible enough to move in very limited spaces such as in the human body. The first multigait soft robots was developed in  and the first fully integrated, independent soft robot with soft batteries and control systems was developed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Snakebot.
Fearing, S. Avadhanula, D. Campolo, M. Sitti, J. Jan, and R. Wood, "A micromechanical flying insect thorax," Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots, pp. Dudek, M. Jenkin, C. Prahacs, A. Hogue, J. Sattar, P. Giguere, A. German, H. Liu, S. Saun- derson, A. Ripsman, et al. Alessi, A. Sudano, D. Accoto, E. Alexander, Principles of animal locomotion.
Raibert, H. Ahmadi and M. Gregorio, M. Ahmadi, and M.
Niiyama, A. Nagakubo, and Y. Raibert, K. Blankespoor, G. Nelson, R. Playter, et al. Saranli, M. Buehler, and D. Clark, J. Cham, S. Bailey, E. Froehlich, P. Nahata, M.
Cutkosky, et al. Proceedings ICRA. Kim, J. Clark, and M. Cutkosky, "isprawl: Design and tuning for high-speed autonomous open-loop running," The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. Wakimoto, K. Suzumori, T. Kanda, et al. Li, B. Li, J. Ruan, and X. Hirose, P. Cave, and C. Goulden, Biologically inspired robots: snake- like locomotors and manipulators, vol. Hatton and H. Choset, "Generating gaits for snake robots: annealed chain fitting and keyframe wave extraction," Autonomous Robots, vol.
Marvi, G. Meyers, G. Russell, D. Unver, A. Uneri, A. Aydemir, and M. Sitti, "Geckobot: a gecko inspired climbing robot using elastomer adhesives," in International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.
Bio-inspired robotics - Wikipedia
Kim, M. Spenko, S. Trujillo, B. Heyneman, D. Santos, and M. The resulting GhostBot is a robot with electroreceptive capabilities and a whopping 32 degrees of freedom. GhostBot, inspired by electric fish, is a robot with electroreceptive capabilities and a whopping 32 degrees of freedom. So, iRobot and a number of other companies are very, very interested in having an effective sensory system at that range. The Office of Naval Research recently provided funding for the project, which is being used to transition current engineered systems to real-world applications.
It holds fantastic promise. We started this engineered approach to electrosense almost 10 years ago, and now other people have started seeing its promise,? Black ghost knifefish are particularly adept at vertical and backward swimming, making them more acrobatic than other fish.
GhostBot can deploy forces in many different directions, from very low to very large force values? This capability offers opportunities in terms of reducing the threat of entanglement in cluttered environments and enabling up-close inspections of equipment and underwater biological features such as coral reefs without damaging them? Black ghost knifefish, it turns out, have one more important lesson to teach engineers, which has to do with electromagnetic interference. Gilling and other muscular movements complicate matters for the fish because they interfere with their self-generated electrical currents, potentially impairing their ability to navigate.
The electronic components within the GhostBot cause similar problems. The fish have a special circuit in their brains that helps them learn and cancel out the pattern of electrical emissions that are artifacts from their own movements. It works by adding a negative image of those signals to the incoming sensory signals. While interference occurs on many different frequencies, the robot only emits at a single frequency, making it possible to ignore self-caused interference. Meanwhile, in the air, another bio-inspired robot that made headlines and led to a viral YouTube video is the Nano Hummingbird, developed by AeroVironment Inc.
Designed to provide reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities in urban environments as part of a DARPA-sponsored military research contract, the Nano Hummingbird is a small, lightweight 19 grams robot capable of lateral degree flips, precision hover flight, and hover stability in 5-mph winds. The device can carry small payloads and fly in both indoor and outdoor environments. It can be controlled by an operator via a live video image stream from the aircraft, without looking at or hearing the aircraft directly, and it can stay in the air for 11 minutes in a single flight.
The Nano Hummingbird also embodies a unique technical milestone? Nano Hummingbird is kind of like the Wright brothers first flying. Miniaturizing all of the systems is complex. As you get smaller that becomes a problem, because it becomes the dominant payload on your aircraft,? He continues,? So, it will probably happen first on larger helicopters. It will be more time down the road from that to actually sitting on something as small as our hummingbird, but it can all happen. AeroVironment has a long history of bio-inspired robotics design. The Nano Hummingbird was a proof-of-concept project, says Keennon, but it could lead to improvements in the design of smaller aircraft and helicopters.
Accelerated Evolution. One trend Keennon has picked up on is that bio-inspired robotic designs are developing more quickly than their more traditionally engineered counterparts. Particularly in ground- and marine-based robots, it definitely looks like the efficiencies, the adaptability, the different environments have been increasing more rapidly for the bio-inspired designs than the conventional designs. I definitely notice that it might be a similar trend for the flying robots.?
The market for bio-inspired robotics will be driven by consumers, says Keennon. This fascination will always drive the market and help bio-inspired robotics move forward. I think that? Raibert at Boston Dynamics agrees, saying the growth of bio-inspired designs will be driven by new engineering techniques like 3-D printing and nanotechnology.
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He says both technologies will enable roboticists to create more sophisticated systems that match some of the complexity and functionality of animals. When was the last time you rode a whale to North America?? Speed is not a forte of animals, but high maneuverability is.