This boundary was subsequently demarcated by a mixed commission. It was agreed that the Amu Darya river would form the border between Afghanistan and the Russian empire. Russia gained full possession of all of the Pamir Mountains , except for Taghdumbash , which would be the subject of a later Afghan-China agreement.
To conclude their agreement, one peak was named Mount Concord. The Russians had gained all of the lands North of the Amu Darya which included the land claimed by the Khanate of Khiva, including the approaches to Herat, and all of the land claimed by the Khanate of Khoqand, including the Pamir plateau.
To ensure a complete separation, this new Afghan state was given an odd eastern appendage known as the Wakhan Corridor. Historians do not agree on dating the beginning or end of the Great Game. One author believes that the Great Game commenced with Russia's victory in the Russo-Persian War —13 and the signing of the Treaty of Gulistan of or the Treaty of Turkmenchay of Some authors believe that the Great Game came to a close with the three Anglo-Russian agreements of which delineated spheres of interest between British India and Russian Central Asia in the borderland areas of Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
When everyone is dead, the Great Game is finished. Not before. One author proposes that Britain lost The Great Game. If Khiva and Bukhara were to become buffer states, then trade routes to Afghanistan, as a protectorate, along the Indus and Sutlej rivers would be necessary and therefore access through the Sind and Punjab regions would be required.
The Great Game began between —34 as an attempt to negotiate trade deals with Ranjit Singh and the Amirs of Sind, and the "first interruption of this magnificent British daydream was caused by the determination of the Amirs of Sind to be left alone. The failure to turn Afghanistan into a client state meant that The Great Game could not be won.
In , Lord Curzon , the future Viceroy of India, commented:. Kipling's use of the term was entirely fictional, ".. At the time when the story is set i. Two authors have proposed that The Great Game was a legend and that the British Raj did not have the capacity to conduct such an undertaking. An examination of the archives of the various departments of the Raj showed no evidence of a British intelligence network in Central Asia. At best, efforts to obtain information on Russian moves in Central Asia were rare, ad hoc adventures and at worst intrigues resembling the adventures in Kim were baseless rumours, and that such rumours "were always common currency in Central Asia and they applied as much to Russia as to Britain".
Later, the same author proposed that Russia never had the will nor ability to move on India, nor India the capability to move on Central Asia. Russia did not want Afghanistan, considering their initial failure to take Khiva and the British debacle in the First Anglo-Afghan War. In order to invade Afghanistan they would first require a forward base in Khorasan, Persia. Petersburg had decided by then that a forward policy in the region had failed but one of non-intervention appeared to work.
It has been argued that the Russian military advances in Central Asia were advocated and executed only by irresponsible Russians or enthusiastic governors of the frontier provinces. It was rarely used before that period. Reading the history of the British Empire in India and the Middle East one is struck by both the prominence and the unreality of strategic debates.
Mail communications between London and Calcutta could take as long as three months either way. In , the Indo-European Telegraph Line was completed and it provided a communication link between London and Calcutta after passing through Russia. The home office now had complete control over foreign policy in India and the Governor-General of India lost the discretion that they once enjoyed.
In , Russia moved against Bukhara and occupied Samarkand. Clarendon replied that the rapid advance of Russian troops neither alarmed nor surprised the British Government, however it did the British public and the Indian Government. Clarendon proposed a neutral zone between Britain and Russia in the region, a view that was shared by the Russian Government.
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After the signing of the Anglo-Russian Agreement of that was followed by Russia's occupation of Khiva, Gorchakov wrote in the Gorchakov Memorandum of that "Although Westmann, Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs, and told him that "The advance of Russia in Central Asia of late years was a subject of watchful interest, although it was not one of either jealousy or fear to the Government of India. Northbrook would not accept any extension of Persia towards Merv. The pessimistic belief of resource scarcity emerged once again in the s, and with it the hope that the newly independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus would provide a resource boom - the new "Persian Gulf" - and with it competition for oil and gas in a 21st-century version of The Great Game.
These expectations were not supported by the facts, and came with an exaggeration of the region's commercial and geopolitical value. Other authors disagree with these views. One strategic analyst has written that the Central Asian states are not pawns in any game and the so-called "New Great Game" is a misnomer that has not eventuated. Rather than two empires focused on the region as in the past, there are now many global and regional powers active with the rise of China and India as major economic powers.
The emergence of Russia from a local-level player to an international-level one has seen Russia regarded as not an offensive power by the Central Asian states, which have diversified their political, economic, and security relationships. However, their membership of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization , established in , shows that they have gained a degree of real independence, with China offering a predictability unknown in the "Great Game". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see The Great Game disambiguation.
Political and diplomatic confrontation between Britain and Russia over the Central Asia region from to Further information: First Anglo-Afghan War. Further information: Anglo-Persian War. Further information: Second Anglo-Afghan War. Krasno- vodsk. Ash- gabat. Geok Tepe. Further information: Hunza—Nagar Campaign. United Kingdom portal Colonialism portal. The International History Review, Vol.
Paper Rowe In Alexander C. Diener; Joshua Hagen eds. In setting these boundaries, the final act of the tense game played out by the British and Russian governments came to a close. Pamirs Org. Oriental Review Org. Unwin Hyman, London What is Asia to Us? Edited by Martin Ewans. First published by Longman, London, Volume 1 and Volume 2 R.
Faulding, London. Routledge Curzon, Abingdon, England, Edited by Horace Hayman Wilson. Published by John Murray, London, Richard Bentley, London Arthur Conolly. London, Richard Bentley, Cambridge University Press, London: John Murray. John Murray, London, Joseph Wolff. The London Gazette. Outram, Lieut. General Sir James. London: Smith, Elder and Co. IV , p.
Overview of the Great Game
From the beginning of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century, the East India Company is a trading corporation, existing on the sufferance of the native powers, and in rivalry with the merchant companies of Holland and France. During the next century the Company acquires and consolidates its dominion, shares its sovereignty in increasing proportions with the Crown, and gradually loses its mercantile privileges and functions.
After the Mutiny of , the remaining powers of the Company are transferred to the Crown A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. Cambridge University Press. By George P. By Martin Sicker. Praeger, London, Routledge, Abingdon UK, September 15, Routledge, Abingdon, Afghan Wars and the North-West Frontier — London: Cassell.
Library of Congress Publication Yale University Press, New Haven, Report on the Proceedings of the Pamir Boundary Commission. Collin Davies Cambridge University Press. Public Record Office. Proceedings in Central Asia From Major-General M. Gerard, C. Retrieved 14 June The Caucasus, thanks to Urquhart and his friends, had thus become part of the Great Game battlefield. Jennifer Siegel.
Overview of the Great Game
Tauris, London Routledge, Abington, England. By Elena Andreeva. Oriental Review. Unofficially, the Great Game is still going on; and as Rudyard Kipling said, it will end when everyone is dead, i. Of that we can be sure. Vescovi , p.
Cambridge University Press Yale University Press, The New York Times. Atlantic Monthly Press. Postmodern Imperialism: Geopolitics and the Great Games. Clarity Press. Central Asia: Geopolitics, Security and Stability. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, England, By Marlene Laruelle, Sebastien Peyrouse. Routledge, Abington, England, Vintage Books, London Contemporary British History.
What Was the Great Game? - weralahohofy.tk
The Great Game Moves North. Foreign Affairs. The New Great Game in Space. The Project Institute. Becker, Seymour. Ingram, Edward. The International History Review. Administrative divisions Earthquakes Volcanoes. Outline Index Bibliography. Presidencies and provinces of the British Raj. But people who are afraid see danger everywhere, and alarmists in London accused their government of turning a blind eye to the Russian threat. Does this remind you of anything? The main reason was the obvious difference in potential between the empire and the archaic agricultural and nomadic monarchies.
Russian goods textiles, sugar, flour, and also instruments, metal and glass wares, clocks, dishes, and—from on—kerosene needed to find new distribution markets, and Russian merchants needed access to cotton, silk, lambskin, rugs, and spices from Turkmenistan, as well as traveling Chinese goods. But trade caravans were subject to raids by bandits. Back in the Petrine era Russia started to form lines of defense along the perimeter of the Great Steppe, slowly moving them to the south—to Orenburg, New Orenburg, the Sirdaryo Region, and the Aral District.
As early as the late s, English scouts were found in Bukhara and Samarkand. The oases of Turkmenistan were enticingly close to North Afghanistan, which had tacitly become part of the British sphere of influence.
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The events of reinforced concerns in Petersburg. With an unclear motive, the English brought their Indian forces into Afghanistan and kept them there for over three years. The intelligence and rumors coming from Kabul were contradictory. Russia had every reason to worry that the English had effectively annexed Afghanistan and would make a move to the north at any moment, first taking the Merv oasis, at which point Samarkand and Bukhara would look like easy picking.
If they crossed the Hindu Kush, what would prevent them from taking all of the lowlands in Turkestan? Russia made a firm decision to advance its border beyond the wide swath of desolate deserts and semi-deserts. The struggle against bandits went onto the backburner. How did this move southward go? The Kazakh khanate had ceased to exist back in Khan Kenesary tried to reinstate it, but he died in in a feud against the Kirghiz.
From now on the empire did not act in an ad hoc manner as before, but in a concentrated way, continually keeping the English factor in mind. England continued its worldwide expansion, conquering territories in South Africa, Burma, the West Indies, and Nigeria; making the Gold Coast Ghana , Lesotho, and Sikkim into its colonies; putting the finishing touches on its possessions in Canada and Australia; and subjugating the semi-independent principalities of India more than of them! The history of Russian-English relations in this period is a story of mutual jealous watch, veiled threats, mutual obstruction, intrigues, and temporary alliances at very high levels.
Each side bluffed and tried not to be the first to blink, which more than once led to dangerous situations. But at a lower level, there were talks between Russian and English officers and mid-level diplomats—not in the capitals, but on the basis of shared interests or on the neutral ground of proximity. There was no difficulty in understanding each other since both sides could speak in French. There were secret meetings between spies, as well as meetings between travelers in military professions. Through their shared efforts they helped avoid direct conflicts.
At the same time, Russia and England always had plans at the ready for fixing their problems militarily. It would be better if they were divided by an independent Persia and Afghanistan, and it would be better for them to remain independent. Of course, the northern borders of Persia and especially Afghanistan were not entirely clear. The situation in Pamir was also unclear, not to mention Tian Shan. And the question remained: Was it necessary to absorb the Central Asian khanates or would it be enough to make them protectorates of Russia allowing for the free movement of Russian troops?
Despite the backwardness of their monarchies, the khans and emirs of Central Asia were quite militant.
What Was the Great Game?
Thus, the Kokand khanate actively seized land from the Kazakhs and Kirghiz and fought Bukhara with variable success. The memory of ancient kingdoms, poets, astronomers, incredible manuscripts, palaces, and mausoleums—all of this could not on its own become a motive force capable of pulling this impoverished land out of the Middle Ages. These kingdoms trapped far from a coastline could only flourish as long as dependable trade routes crossed through them.
But the Great Silk Road was no more, and the lands lying along it were falling into stagnation and regression. Only an external power could pull them out of this state of regression and decline. On the initiative of military minister Miltyutin, the great campaign into Central Asia began in Before the end of several important cities in the Kokand khanate had been seized, including Tashkent. The following year Russia occupied Khujand, standing at the entry to the Fergana Valley, and the path to Kokand was open.
In spite of its modest name, this agreement gave the Kokand khanate something like vassal status and opened for Russia a direct pathway to the Chinese market, since Kokand possessed two passages leading to western China.
The Great Game
As a result, the khanate was abolished in , and its territories were divided into two oblasts, or regions: Sirdaryo centered at Tashkent and Fergana. The emir of Bukhara also did not capitulate right away, but only after the capture of Samarkand. At first, England reacted with studied skepticism. The English press was less cool-headed. At all stages of the Great Game the press reinforced its worries with an information war. There were endless references to the fictitious Testament of Peter the Great a falsification that had appeared back in with a complete program for conquering the world.
According to the Testament , a global Russian state was only possible if Russia controlled Constantinople and India. Russia instated the General Governorship of Turkestan at avery opportune moment